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Some founders were itinerant, traveling from church to church to cast bells on site; but the majority had settled works in large towns.

Among other places London, Gloucester, Salisbury, Bury St Edmunds, Norwich, and Colchester were seats of eminent foundries.

The angles at the crown and soundbow were gradually flattened out and the waist became shorter, flaring toward the mouth.

Although tuning methods were still uncertain and empirical, sets of bells in diatonic sequence were installed at important parish churches and monasteries. 1609–1667) and his brother Pieter, Pierre, or Peter Hemony (1619–1680) were the greatest carillon bell founders in the history of the Low Countries.

They developed the carillon, in collaboration with Jacob van Eyck, into a full-fledged musical instrument by casting the first tuned carillon in 1644.

The Hemony Brothers are regarded as the first of the modern western bell-founders who used a scientific approach to casting the optimum shape and tuning bells to enable them to be harmonically tuned.

The present bell is sometimes referred to as Kolokol III (Bell III), because it is the third recasting; remnants from the old bell were melted down and the metal reused to cast the new bell.Bellfounding is a process that in Europe dates to the 4th or 5th century.Bells for the intention of producing functional sound are usually made by casting bell metal, an alloy of bronze.Two bells were cast under his direction at Abingdon which also held two others cast by St. Although these attracted trade from the surrounding countryside, mediaeval founders did not confine themselves to bellmaking as their only source of livelihood.Instead, they often combined it with related trades, such as metal ware, utensil manufacturing and gunmaking.

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