Breeding pairs and unpaired singles defend 4-25 ha territories year-round by singing, which limits density.
Threats and conservation Predation at nests by ship rats and possums is the primary cause of current declines of North Island kokako.
Several key populations are being restored primarily by community groups.
Maintenance of genetic health also influences management; e.g.
Distribution and habitat Natural remnant North Island kokako populations are confined to a few scattered forests in the northern half of the North Island, particularly in the Waikato, Bay of Plenty, Te Urewera, South Auckland and Northland.
Ship rats and possums are routinely targeted by trapping and poisoning so that their numbers are low for the duration of the breeding season (November to February). The sexes are alike; juveniles have pink or lilac wattles.
Food supply influences the number of breeding attempts that kokako make, but nest predators determine the outcomes of these attempts.
For women, age was positively associated with each of the religiosity measures; among men, requests for prayer from others was the only indicator for which age was not a significant predictor.
The findings are discussed in relation to previous work on age and religious participation.